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dWellings," is quite incomprehensible. In this way the present over-
crowding on area has been produced under the pretence of sanitary
housing of the people. This means of rent reduction is quite inad- 3
E missible. Some figures which clearly show the evil of this form of
[ overcrowding when it is not complicated by the other form (viz., over- _§
E crowding in room), or even by structural and sanitary defects, are to J
‘ be found in a Report on the Vital Statistics of the Peabody Buildings,
read before the Royal Statistical Society by Dr. Newsholme in 1891. i
The total population of these dwellings in 1889 was 20,374; the
average number of cubic feet allowed for each person was 380 (Local
I Government Board Model Byelaws demand 300) ; the number of
I persons to the acre was 7 51, the average for the London Registration
i District being 49, and for England and Wales o·8 per acre. We g
have a picked class to deal with, in regular work, and at a time When ,
things are going well; and yet a comparison of the death­rate in Q;
these dwellings with that of the whole of London is not by any
means satisfactory, especially when we remember that it is highly _;
probable that some of the hospital deaths are not recorded in the V
Peabody deaths? W
[ I 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 [ 1894
London ..., 2I'I2 20'8Il I8'47 2I'7O ---- R
Peabody Buildings 2o·47 IQ’IQl I7’I3 2I'Q4 ­---
I Country Districts { I7'2 16‘6 16*4 17·4 ­- - -­ I ­-
1 In the year 1890, when the population had presumably increased,
1 the death­rate was actually higher than that for the rest of London. _ 1
@ Then the death-rate of children between the ages 0-5 years was
higher than the corresponding death­rate taken for London as a T
l whole.
E Death~Rate per 1,000 at Age Period 0­5. Peabody Buildings, 1888-89. ·
Peabody Buildings ` 59·1
London 55·8 ,
Then, again, the death­rates from all those diseases associated with
air pollution, ma., scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough, and
measles, in these model dwellings were above the rates for the whole [
l of London. Phthisis and other tubercular diseases which are also
known to be intiniately associated with want of air and light were ,
1 also more prevalent. It is clear that if the aim of the housing
1 reformer is to reduce ill-health he must avoid this insidious form of I
l overcrowding whether carried out in the interests of charity by
, philanthropic trustees or by the London County Council itself. ,
l The close relationship between density of population and death-
l rate was clearly shown by Dr. Ogle, who classilied the districts of g
l England and Wales according to the death­rates, and afterwards ‘
l * These figures are taken in preference to later ones, as the death­rates, etc., have E
l been carefully wrrecied by a great authority on vital statistics and are therefore most
l reliable.