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for some place in the Oonfederacy. This doctrine ·
1 was not only approved by the Supreme Court, but
1 was sanctioned by an international tribunal-Great
L, Britain having protested. against our action. _
Lawyers have suggested the distinction that in that ‘ T
case the cargo had to go by water to some Confederate ’a
l, port, already bloclïaded, while, in the case of Holland, "
for instance, cargoes go to Rotterdam and thence by *
i. inland transportation into Germany. This seems to
ï many to be a distinction without a difference.
Y I-Iolland’s neutral ports are really natural ports for
i, German trade. By treaty Germany has the right to
1; the navigation of the Bhine and it she could freely ·
receive goods destined to her through Dutch ports.
1 blockade, as far as she is concerned, would be a farce.
This really seems to go to the root of the question.
May a belligerent country, surrounded by neutral
11 countries, receive goods through these countries?
If so, it would give such a belligerent a great advan-
1 tage over an island like Great Britain or Japan. It
would be possible to blockade either of these elïec- 4
tively while Germany or Austria would escape all
, danger in this respect. I incline to believe that, 1
1 while there may be technical force in the objection
y suggested, the grzmde morele is with Great Britain, t
' ‘ and that goods really intended for German consump-
, tion, passing through these ports, can be properly
1 seized in conformity with the general principles
:1 underlying the doctrine of blockade.
1 Now in regard to contraband. Since the Middle à
1 Ages it has been recognized that a belligerent had the
right to stop neutral vessels on the high seas and
1 remove therefrom war supplies intended for the 1
1 enemy. The controversy has always arisen, not in
V1 regard to the principle, which has been acknowledged
for centuries, but because of the difficulty of ascer-
taining just what supplies were properly aids to the
enemy in his warlike operations. As to gun powder,
1 .