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Higher Command estimated that two
factors would gravely modify the value
of the large numerical reserves possessed
by this particular opponent. The first
E of these factors was the dilficulty of
re-equipping, re-arming, re-munitioning, _
Russia. The Dardanelles was closed.
Archangel would be closed during the
whole winter. Vladivostock, though kept
artiücially open during the winter, was
at a distance of 6,000 miles from the
scene of conflict and united with it by
but one line of railway, while all muni-
tionment coming in from these very
distant points must first also pass over
many thousands miles of sea. Further,
it was believed that disorganisation within ,
the Russian State would gravely delay
1 the re-arming of the forces.
I The second factor upon which the Q
` enemy relied in this case was the diiiïculty
, Russia would find in officering her new ä
lv armies. More than half the original i
forces, fully trained as they had been, ä
were gone. To find appropriate leader-
ship for the completely new bodies which
would next appear would be a diflieult
task. It was probably imagined at Berlin ,